Gender Integration Research

Gender Integration Research

Publication info


CARE continues to push the cutting edge of finding answers to the toughest questions of how to create gender equality.  We work across all of CARE's countries and sectors to look for new ideas and document successes (and failures) so we can share with practioners, program staff, and decision-makers.  We conduct research on all aspects of gender integration. 

CARE has extensive experience in conducting programmatic research both internally and in collaboration with academic and non-academic research partners. Our research partnership experiences span across research designs including randomized control trials, quasi experimental studies, cohort studies, and case studies. Our partnerships have also utilized a variety of methods including large quantitative surveys, highly participatory approaches, and a variety of qualitative methods. Below we have highlighted just a few of the many partnership experiences CARE has specifically with gender related research.  

Formative and Impact Evaluations:

Towards Improved Economic and Sexual/Reproductive Health Outcomes for Adolescent Girls (TESFA): TESFA was a 3 year project [2010-2013] that worked to improve economic, and sexual and reproductive health outcomes for ever‐married adolescent girls (ages 14-19) in Ethiopia. CARE partnered with the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) to do a comparative evaluation study across 4 program arms [Economic Empowerment training only; Sexual Reproductive Health training only; both trainings; delayed group (served as control)]. The study had four core components:  (1) quantitative baseline and endline surveys with a cohort of the adolescent girls participating in the project; (2) qualitative interviews and focus groups, and participatory learning activities at endline with project participants, community members, project staff, and other partners; (3) Photo Voice with 10 adolescent girls who were project participants; and (4) comprehensive monitoring data at the level of each group and project staff.

CARE is currently part of a consortium with World Vision for the Implementation of a 4 year DFID funded education initiative in Zimbabwe. CARE is the technical lead for Gender and Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning for the consortium. The research for the initiative has a randomized control trial design and is utilizing large household surveys, learning assessments, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews.

The Inner Spaces, Outer Faces Initiative (ISOFI) was developed by CARE and ICRW to test effectiveness of gender and sexuality programming in maternal and newborn health contexts in India. The research used a quasi-experimental operations design, utilizing in-depth interviews and surveys using multi-stage sampling techniques.  

CARE’s SHOUHARDO project in Bangladesh, was the first large-scale project to use the rights-based, livelihoods approach to address malnutrition with a focus on women’s empowerment. The impact evaluation for the project used diversified and holistic methods by employing mixed-methods approach and drawing from multiple data sources and methods, including both a non-experimental and quasi-experimental design.

CARE’s Strategic Impact Inquiry was an in-depth global 5 year participatory study highlighting critical lessons in women’s empowerment programming in 404 projects across multiple sectors in 24 countries. It utilized both secondary data as well as original data collected through surveys, interviews, participatory reflective techniques, and more.

Large national surveys:

International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES): The IMAGES study is one of the most comprehensive studies ever on men’s practices and attitudes as they relate to gender equality, household dynamics, intimate partner violence, health and economic stress.  CARE partnered with Promundo and ICRW to carry out the IMAGES studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Mali.

CARE partnered with Partners for Prevention to implement the “UN Multi Country Study on Men and Violence” in Sri Lanka, which captured risk factors in relation to violence against women, childhood trauma and men’s own experience of violence. 

Development and testing  of measurement tools:

Women’s Empowerment – Multidimensional Evaluation of Agency, Social Capital, and Relations (WE-MEASR): To strengthen and standardize the measurement of women’s empowerment in our health programs, CARE has developed a new, multidimensional quantitative survey tool. In developing the measures, CARE built on and adapted existing validated measures, including the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) scale, the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), the Demographic and Health Survey Women’s Empowerment Modules and the Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool (ASCAT). The items in the tool were tested and refined through two rounds of cognitive interviewing, including interviews with women in rural Malawi. The final measures were then field tested through interviews with 641 married women in Malawi in both patrilineal and matrilineal communities. Data from field tests were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis, and then further refined. CARE is now using various adaptations of WE‐MEASR in program evaluations in several countries to assess how well the scales work in other contexts and to explore associations between programming, empowerment and health behavior outcomes. 

The Gender Equitable Index (GEI): CARE has been developing a set of survey tools to measure changes in gender perceptions among boys and girls. Thus far the tools have been piloted in three countries (Bangladesh, India, and Burundi), and is now being used in several other countries to assess how well they work in other contexts.

The Youth Leadership Index (YLI): CARE developed this 21 item survey tool to collect quantitative information on youth (ages 10-17) about their self--‐confidence, their decision--‐making, problem solving, and organizational skills, their sense of voice, and their ability to motivate others. It was piloted in three countries (Bangladesh, India, and Burundi) and is now being used in several other countries to assess how well it works in other contexts.

Check out some of our new publications on:

Measuring Gender Transformative Change

Measuring the Impact of Gender Programming

Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Based Violence in School Settings

Engaging Young Men in Non-Violence

Masculinities in Bangladesh

CARE is also featured as a cutting-edge thinker in several other publications, including:

DFID's Report on Effective Evaluations of Gender-Based Violence Programming

USAID's Strategy to End Gender-Based Violence

You can also look for our research on Engaging Men and Boys